Wednesday, August 20, 2014

The process will facilitate the work of subcellular search

The method allows to make them visible in their body without damaging their interconnection, nerve cells or blood vessels, as here, in these enlarged cortex and hippocampus & nbsp images; brain and simplify the & nbsp; study

The process will facilitate the work of subcellular search

The method is based on a gel aqueous detergents containing for rapidly eliminating lipid , that is to say the molecules of fat. In recent leached, the light can then pass through the tissues and organs make all visible after two weeks. To avoid damaging the body of the animal, the mixture is injected through blood, once the Murid euthanized.

Additional technical storage and imaging of tissue samples provides an opportunity to examine the intercellular connections, cell structures and molecules they contain, while using standard techniques of genetics and molecular biology , ensure the perpetrators.

According to them, these protocols employing simple reagents and equipment available and profitable facilitate research at the subcellular scale large samples of body tissue.

Mice became completely transparent!

Mice became completely transparent!

American researchers have developed a technique to make transparent laboratory mice. Brain, lungs, stomach and kidneys, all organs can then be visualized in three dimensions even within the body of the subject of study.

Within two to three days following the injection of a special gel in the blood of laboratory mice, the brain (C), kidneys (black arrow in B), his heart, lungs and intestines become transparent .  The rest of the body (dorsal view in A, ventral view B) reaches the same state after two days.  © Yang et al, Cell.

Called Clarity , the new process is to make transparent a mouse in its entirety has the purpose to allow detailed mapping of the nervous system of the animal. And it will facilitate the understanding of how the brain and its interaction with the rest of the body in particular with a view to study the spread of cancer or to improve treatments against chronic pain, the authors report in the journal Cell .

For Viviana Gradinaru, a researcher at the Institute of Technology of California, USA, and co-author of the article, this is a first. Previous experiments had helped to make transparent the brains or embryos , but none to his knowledge had hitherto been applied to an entire rodent adult.

This discovery gives hope for extraterrestrial life

Isolated in their aqueous capsule, living things are bathed in oil phase where they draw nutrients and metabolites useful for their development. The reaction thus localizes longer just on the lake bottom, where meet tar and natural waters, as previously thought researchers.

Other bacteria, extremophiles qualified, live in inhospitable environments. Here hydrothermal vents hundreds of meters below the ocean, no light, no oxygen at high temperatures and in the presence of acid fluid and metal, are colonized by thermophilic bacteria.  © P. Rona, Wikimedia Commons

This discovery gives hope for extraterrestrial life

"The degradation changes the chemical composition of mineral oil and leads to the formation of viscous bitumen, such as sands oil ultimately  explains Professor Rainer Meckenstock, lead author of the study. Our data thus provide important information the quality of the asphalt and are therefore essential for the industry of what remains the world's largest energy source. "

The results could be used by oil companies in their strategy to limit the biodegradation of oil fields , avoiding the formation of microdroplets of water during drilling, among others.

In addition, capacity degradation of chemical compounds in oil by these micro-organisms could be very useful for the remediation of water contaminated groundwater, for example, by a ruptured pipeline .

According to co-author Dirk Schulze-Makuch study, an astrobiologist at the University of Washington, Pullman, United States, life in such toxic condition suggests that it may exist in lakes hydrocarbon moon Titan of Saturn where methane and ethane could mix with groundwater.

Oil devoured from within by bacteria

Oil devoured from within by bacteria

A study shows that micro-organisms are able to live fully immersed in oil pockets and turn. Until now it was thought that such biochemical processes were not feasible at the interface between water and natural mineral oil.

The scientists studied bacteria and archaea Pitch Lake in La Brea, in the Caribbean. This asphalt lake contains a thick black mud, a mixture of bitumen, clay and saltwater.  © Jw2c, Wikimedia Commons

Water droplets contained in natural reservoirs of oil offer as favorable to certain microbes microhabitats reveal scientific research center German Helmholtz Zentrum M√ľnchen in an article in the journal Science.

The authors made ​​the discovery in the bitumen Pitch Lake , the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago off Venezuela. In this natural accumulation of 40 surface acres and 75 feet deep (the largest in the world), the researchers drew water samples from one to three microliters in volume.

The extraction and sequencing of the DNA they contain indicate the presence of a multitude of methane bacteria . However, the chemical composition obtained by the control microdrops bitumen mixture of distilled water differs, indicating that the bacteria of the first category actively degrade hydrocarbons.

Entamoeba histolytica

Entamoeba histolytica

This other protozoan parasite infects the digestive tract and generates dysentery amoeba, ie bloody diarrhea and abdominal pain that can become life-threatening. Furthermore, Entamoeba histolytica can spread in the body and cause abscesses in the liver and in other organs. The disease is contracted through contaminated water, raw vegetables and unpeeled fruits and contaminated or dishes prepared in unhygienic conditions.

Trichinella spiralis

The worm nematode Trichinella spiralis is contracted through consumption, by country, pork, boar , horse, walrus or the polar bear undercooked. Ingested cysts release the adults mate. Thousands of larvae migrate produced in the muscles of their host waiting to be swallowed by a new host. The infestations are massive serious conditions often resulting in death.


Tapeworms of the family Opisthorchiidae are transmitted through the consumption of fish from freshwater raw or undercooked, infected themselves by snails filled with larvae. Once in a stomach of mammal - like humans - they take their adult form and escape into the bile ducts and the gallbladder . Eggs released in feces contaminate new mollusks.

Ascaris spp.

This kind of intestinal roundworm measure up to 35 centimeters. Ingested in water or vegetable or fruit, the eggs hatch into larvae. They migrate from the intestine through the blood to the lungs and airways to the throat where they are swallowed into the stomach. They repass into the intestine where they then develop into adult worms. The eggs of females are released in the feces. Ascaris lumbricoides infects 1.450 million people and cause 60,000 deaths per year, according to the World Health Organization.

Trypanosoma cruzi

Known to give the Chagas disease , this protozoan parasite infects silently various body organs, including the heart. Trypanosoma cruzi may cause ten to twenty years after the contamination of serious and sometimes fatal cardiac or intestinal problems. It is transmitted to humans by ingestion of contaminated feces fruit  insects bloodsucking, assassin bugs.

Echinococcus multilocularis

Echinococcus multilocularis

Hunters occasionally in contact with rodents , carcasses, berries or mushrooms contaminated with feces of foxes and other canids can be infected by the worm Echinococcus multilocularis . Again, the parasite invades internal organs as cysts and pathology may in some cases be lethal.

Toxoplasma gondii

This is the parasite that pregnant women have to flee, as immunocompromised individuals and transplanted. At first, this protozoan caught, for example, when cleaning a cat litter or drinking contaminated water or undercooked meat, can cause abnormal fetal. kids coloring pages In seconds, Toxoplasma gondii can multiply uncontrollably.

Cryptosporidium spp.

Food washed with water contaminated with cattle sick, cider and unpasteurized milk, the snails infected can transmit protozoan parasites of the genus Cryptosporidium spp. They are responsible for diarrhea severe aqueous, pancreatitis and sometimes cause malnutrition secondary fatal in infants and weak subjects.

The worm Ascaris lumbricoides annually kills 2,700 people worldwide.  © Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Top 10 pests to be avoided for good health

Top 10 pests to be avoided for good health

Summer is conducive to travel abroad, insect bites, consumption of fruits and unpeeled or pork sausages grilled vegetables evil. Beware of pests! While some prove harmless to health, others are unfortunately fatal.

Taenia solium grows about one meter every six months to ten meters to the adult form.  © Roberto J. Galindo, Wikimedia Commons, cc by sa 3.0

Taenia solium

Undercooked pork can lead to infection with Taenia solium . Ingested as cysts , this tapeworm develops in the intestine in adults up to 10 meters long. free printable coloring pages Opportunistic, it feeds on nutrients ingested and does not transmit in general diseases.

Echinococcus granulosus

A cousin of the much smaller worm (a few millimeters) stray dogs who get by eating sheep offal. Eggs' of Echinococcus granulosus can infect humans through poor hygiene or contaminated food. Parasites migrate into the liver , including, where they form cysts bulky size. Their spontaneous rupture can cause a fatal shock.